In the first part of my island biogeography post, I talked about how animals got to islands, giants, dwarves, copycats, and adaptive radiation (I suggest clicking this link if you need a refresher). Now in part 2, I will talk about one of the downsides that animals living on islands face: vulnerability to a variety of threats. Just a warning: I will be talking about touchy subjects including climate change and feral cats in this post, which I have learned from experience is a subject people do not like to talk about and often ends in a fight. Please keep it civil in the comments, otherwise I may have to delete some comments on the subject.
There are examples of how fragile island ecosystems are present in the fossil record long before humans evolved. One such is of one of the many Tethys Sea islands in the Jurassic Period that would one day become the bedrock of Europe. As I mentioned last time, animals living on islands that are normally larger on the mainland are smaller due to constraints of space and resources, and this was no different for the Lagenberg quarry in Germany. Dinosaur fossils found there are mostly of dwarf taxa found elsewhere in Portugal, Africa, and North America such as an island species of the megalosauroid Torvosaurus, diplodocoids, stegosaurs, several indeterminate theropods, and a miniature brachiosaur known as Europasaurus, which was found in a large assemblage which suggests that a herd of these tiny sauropods drowned en masse and were scavenged by crocodilians and fish as evident by tooth marks on the fossils. About 35,000 years after the sediments of the drowning incident were deposited, a series of large tracks suggesting the formation of a landbridge which led to a faunal overturn of the site. The resident Torvosaurus has been estimated to be 13 feet in length, whereas the arriving theropods were estimated to be between 23 and 26 feet long if reconstructed as a relative of Allosaurus. It's possible that the creators of the tracks hunted the mini dinosaurs, who stood no chance against the larger invaders, to extinction. Sound familiar?
What first made the wildlife of the Galápagos islands recognized around the world was not for Charles Darwin's observations on natural selection, but as a food source. Pirates would use the islands as a hideout from Spanish naval forces while stalking the oceans to plunder cargo ships laden with riches from the Spanish colonies in the Americas sailing to Europe. The islands didn't have much mineral use to the pirates, but instead they served as a limited but substantial source of fresh water for the pirates and more importantly as a source of food. If you guessed that pirates hunted the tortoises for food, you would be correct. Giant Tortoises were a preferred source of food for sailors, pirates, and whalers because they were docile and large enough to feed several crew members. Ship crew members would often capture as many tortoises as they need and bring them aboard to kill later; seabirds and sea lions were often slaughtered on the beaches. Intensive harvesting would take a heavy toll on tortoise numbers, whose late age of reproductive maturity and low likelihood of hatchlings surviving could not keep up with the pressure of hunting.
The animals of the Galapagos weren't the only ones to fall victim to the appetites of sailors, as one of the most famous extinct animals in written history (second only to mammoths if cave paintings count as writing) was also a soft target for hungry seafarers, I'm of course talking about the Dodo. Pop culture has painted a picture of this island inhabitant as so slow and dumb, it was destined for extinction, but the reality about this giant is much different. Comparisons of brain size to body size leads scientists to conclude that Dodos were actually fairly smart, and depended more on smell than sight to find the abundant fruit on the island, supplemented with small land vertebrates and shellfish. Dodos weren't dumb, they had lost all adaptations to avoid predators because there were none on their island home of Mauritius until humans arrived and exploited them as a source of fresh meat like with the tortoises of the Galapagos
When pirates, whalers, and sailors arrive on islands such as Mauritius or the Galápagos, they often introduce livestock such as sheep, goats, and pigs to provide an additional source of food for when they pass through the areas in addition to the native mammals, seabirds, tortoises and/or Dodo. However, introducing such herbivores to an island can have disastrous effects as they trample and browse on native plants down to the roots if not properly contained, preventing the plants from regrowing.
One of the most widespread introduced species on islands is one that was not intentionally released by humans. Rats and ants have found their way to many island groups as stowaways on ships and plants, and with no predators on the islands, they rapidly spread upon making landfall. In large swarms, Little Fire Ants (Wasmannia auropunctata) drive native insects out of forest habitat and attack ground nesting birds and reptiles which have no enemies. Rats are particularly dangerous for native birds because they prey on nests, eating the eggs and chicks as well as the adults and competing with them for food. To protect their sugarcane crops, plantation owners introduced Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) from India to Molokai, Maui, and Oahu and have since spread to every Island except Lanai and Kauai, hoping they would prey on the rats. This did not go as planned because the rats are mostly nocturnal while the mongooses are diurnal and instead targeted the eggs and hatchlings of native ground-nesting animals instead such as chickens, francolins, and Hawaiian Geese. Goose numbers were around 25,000 when Europeans first arrived in Hawaii in 1778, but by the 1950s, they had been reduced to 30
As if two introduced mammalian predators wasn't enough for Hawaii's endemic birds to deal with, they also have to battle mosquitos that transmit deadly diseases such as Avian Malaria. It results when a blood-borne parasite, Plasmodium relictum, is transmitted from infected birds to healthy birds by mosquitoes under suitably (warm) temperatures. Once infected, many birds die. Thus, the introduction of mosquitoes made it possible for native birds to become infected, given that a reservoir of disease was present, such as invasive birds like the Japanese White-eye and Red-billed Leiothrix. It's estimated that P. relictum has caused the extinction of a third of the 55 species of Hawaiian Honeycreepers present when Europeans arrived. The survivors retreated to higher elevation forests where cooler temperatures inhibited the growth of the parasite, but many fell victim to the disease...
If the idea of an entire island disappearing underwater sounds ridiculous, guess what: it actually happened! East Island is a low-lying islet surrounded by shallow reefs in the French Frigate Shoals, part of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, and one of the most important nesting sites for Green Sea Turtles in Hawaii, most of which were born on the island. East Island recently made news when storm surge by Hurricane Walaka washed away most of the island, leaving a 150 foot sliver behind. While the reduction in size of East Island has not directly been linked to anthropogenic climate change, it it contributes to the strength and frequency of hurricanes like the one that overtook the island. Part of the theory that hurricanes will become more frequent and stronger is because warmer water provides more energy to feed them, which has been reinforced by computer simulations that produce more intense storms with rising ocean temperatures. To quote an article from the New York Times: “This is probably a forebear of things to come.”
Tropical storms often have massive impacts on tropical islands, and none were nearly as damaging as Hurricane Iniki in 1992 (around the same time Jurassic Park was filmed and may have inspired "Hurricane Clarissa" from The Lost World novel, Steven Spielberg even included footage of the storm making landfall in the associated scene when Dennis Nedry shuts down the parks security system and the Tyrannosaurus escapes). Iniki made landfall on the south-central portion of Kauaʻi, bringing its dangerous inner core to the entire island. Storm surges reached 6 feet high in most parts of the island, sometimes reaching 18 feet with waves as high as 35 feet causing a debris line more than 800 feet inland. Thousands of homes on Kauai were either damaged, destroyed, or lost completely. Agriculture was also heavily impacted by Iniki. Though much of the unharvested sugar cane crop was severely damaged, tender tropical plants like bananas and papayas were destroyed and fruit and nut trees were uprooted or damaged. On the island, one person died when struck by debris, while another lost her life when a portion of her house fell on her. Offshore, two Japanese nationals died when their boat capsized. The Kauai Nukupuu was abundant until the 1800s when clearing of forests for agriculture destroyed much of its habitat and forcing them to take refuge in the Alakai plateau along with many of the other endemics. The damage caused to the island by Iniki may have led to the nukupuu's extinction, as they were not seen after 1996.
I added this video of a Kaua'i O'o singing at the end mainly to show how great the impact of humans is on island endemics. One of the few recordings of a Kauai O'o is of the last male alive at the time singing for a mate that will unfortunately never come. "Now his voice is gone"
To end on a good note, I should mention that all hope is lost for island biodiversity, as there are many I've done lots of research on conservation groups whose work focuses on islands, and here are some of my favorites:
As many of you know, I will be traveling to the Hawaiian Islands to complete my Young Birder Odyssey big year. I thought this trip would also be a good way to revive my evolutionary biology series that I've skimmed the surface with in my posts on redpolls and feathers, now I'm going to discuss how islands affect the evolution of the animals living there, and I will primarily be using various examples from the Hawaiian Islands to help provide examples of what I discuss, including giant waterfowl, long-legged owls, and of course the native honeycreepers that rival Darwin's finches as an example of adaptive radiation from a common ancestor (sorry if you were expecting me to write a post on them). Because Hawaii unfortunately lacks the dwarf elephants, monitor lizards, tortoises, ratites, lemurs, azdharchids, tiny iguanodonts, and some of the other animals featured in Trey the Explainer's Biology on Islands video, which I have watched numerous times in preparation for this post, so I will borrow examples from Madagascar, New Zealand, Indonesia, the Galapagos, Mediterranean, West Indies, California's Channel Islands, and others to supplement the Hawaiian examples when helpful.
One sixth of all land area on earth is geographically separated from everything else. Unlike continents, islands are small and secluded. This isolation means only a few selective organisms can exist on them, if they can get there in the first place. There are three main ways animals get to islands: by flying or swimming there, by crossing natural land bridges that are now underwater, or as castaways of storms. Many birds were able to fly from the mainland to islands, often blown off course or intentionally, and establish themselves there. Seals are long-distance travelers that in many cases can also swim to islands if they need to. Another interesting case is of the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), which is theorized to have originated in Australia and moved north to escape the receding forest habitat as deserts took over following a landbridge to New Guinea and Indonesia. However, the islands inhabited by dragons today were never connected to Australasia by the landbridge, so scientists theorize the dragons colonized them by swimming (they are surprisingly good swimmers). Inclement weather can blow flying animals off course on migration, leaving them stranded on islands as well. This is how the ancestors of the native bird species and subspecies got there, as well as those of the native arthropods and Hawaiian subspecies Hoary Bat. In short, most of the native wildlife in Hawaii got there by accident.
A land-bridge is an area of a continent that is exposed when sea levels are lower, allowing animals to travel between the future islands and the mainland. This is how life has been able to cross between the Americas and Eurasia during the many intermittent periods in history from the Cretaceous to the Pleistocene when the Bering Land bridge connecting Alaska and Russia was open due to lower sea levels. Another interesting land bridge relevant to island biogeography is one that existed in northwestern Europe called Doggerland. During the last ice age, sea levels were lower, and the British Isles were connected to the rest of Europe by a grassy plain called Doggerland that will one day rest at the bottom of the North Sea. These plains supported a variety of European megafauna including mammoths, bison, horses, lions, Megaloceros, rhinos, reindeer, and nomadic humans. Over time, as the climate warmed, these humans and animals were forced to migrate to higher elevations in Britain and the Netherlands as sea levels rose due to melting ice sheets and a tsunami off the coast of what is now Norway.
The rafting theory states that animals sometimes trapped mats of vegetation that blow out to sea during storms, and when they reach the nearest island, they are able to colonize the new land. This is how all of Madagascar's native land mammals got there as well as the ancestors of the iguanas and tortoises in the Galapagos.
Foster's rule, also known as the island rule or the island effect, is a biological rule stating that members of a species get smaller or bigger depending on the resources available in the environment. The rule was first stated by J. Bristol Foster in 1964, in which he compared 116 island species to their mainland varieties. He proposed that certain island creatures evolved into larger versions of themselves while others became smaller. He proposed the simple explanation that smaller creatures get larger when predation pressure is relaxed because of the absence of some of the predators of the mainland, and larger creatures become smaller when food resources are limited because of land area constraints.
The more famous residents of definitely the giants. In the absence of predators or competition for resources, animals living on islands have grown enormous, such as the moas and Haast's Eagles of New Zealand or the Galapagos Tortoises. Despite the presence of kiwis in New Zealand, the closest relatives of the giant moas are a clade of South American paleognaths called tinamous, which are still capable of flight. Despite their size, moas had one predator before the arrival of humans: Haast's Eagle, which had a 3 meter wingspan. Like the moas, they became extinct shortly after humans arrived. The Galapagos Tortoises are the most famous of the living giant tortoises, but another species of giant tortoise, the Aldabra Tortoise, lives on an island northwest of Madagascar with which it shares it's name. Earlier, I mentioned that Komodo Dragons evolved in Australia and moved northward, there was an even bigger monitor lizard related to the dragons to inhabit Australia known as Megalania, which became extinct due to climate change along with its preferred prey of giant kangaroos and wombats. Even Hawaii had its own giant flightless birds (a common theme on islands in the Indo-Pacific). In addition to living and extinct species of Hawaiian Goose or Nene, the Southeast islands were home to four species of flightless geese known as Moa-nalos and the Giant Hawaiian Goose (Branta rhuax).
Islands can also decrease the size of the animals living there due to limited resources and space. One of the most nocticable examples are the Channel Island Fox and Pygmy Mammoth, smaller relatives of the Gray Fox and Columbian Mammoth that live on the mainland in California. I've included other examples, such as Giant Anteater-sized ground sloths and pygmy chameleons
Convergent evolution is when two unrelated animals evolve similar appearances in response to similar environments. One example of convergence that I find most fascinating is one of two Island species imitating each other. In the absence of rodents on New Zealand, a group of ratites shrunk to fill the role of nocturnal opportunists. Kiwis traded flight for a longer bill and an enhanced sense of smell to hunt for insects and worms on the floor of the temperate rainforest, at the cost of good eyesight. What I find most interesting, possibly even more interesting, is that Hawaii has its own version of a kiwi! The Kaua'i Mole Duck (Talpanas lippa) was a flightless species of Duck related to modern-day stifftail ducks (Ruddy, Andean, Lake, Maccoa, Blue-billed, and White-headed, genus Oxyura) that like the kiwis and Kakapo, also gave up flight to hunt for smaller animals on the forest floor at night. Talpanas is unfortunately extinct, but if they were still around, finding one would have been on my list of birding priorities once I got there. Some other cases of convergent evolution in Hawaii include stilt-owls (genus Grallistrix) which evolved long legs similar to resemble those of phorusrhacids, Secretarybirds, and giant flightless Cuban owls of the genus Ornimegalonyx (unlike these owls, Grallistrix kept the ability to fly); and the Hawaiian Honeyeaters, which resemble the honeyeaters of Australasia so closely, they were considered to be part of the same family before elevated to full family status (Mohoidae)
New Zealand isn't just home to flightless birds and monstrous raptors, the islands also act as a time capsule from the age of the dinosaurs. Dense forests of tree ferns and podocarps similar to those in the Lord of the Rings series are found on both islands, and are where episode 5 of Walking With Dinosaurs was filmed. These ancient forests are home to two ancient creatures from the Mesozoic: the Giant Weta and the Tuatara, both coincidentally appearing in that episode. The Tuatara looks like a lizard, but is from an unrelated order called Rhyncocephala. Competition from lizards elsewhere has driven Tuataras into extinction, and now survives only on a few small islands off New Zealand’s coast.
Adaptive radiation is the diversification of a clade from one common ancestor to fill a variety of niches and exploit the abundance of food sources in their new environment. This is the reason I chose to use Hawaii as my example location in this blog post. Most people typically think of the tanagers of the Galápagos when adaptive radiation comes to mind, but I’ve chosen the Hawaiian honeycreepers because not only do their bill shapes reflect a greater divergence than that in the Galapagos, but also because they’re more colorful. About 4 million years ago, the ancestors of the drepanidid finches, most likely a flock of rosefinches based on genetic analysis, was blown or flew naturally to Hawaii. Some of these finches had genes that gave them large grosbeak-like bills, others had those for long, thin bills, and others had genes for short, straight bills. Over time, finches would mate with birds that had bills which would best enable them to feed themselves and provide food for their young until they could only mate with birds of similar bill shape. This is called speciation. In Hawaii, most of the native finches can be divided into five categories: Generalists like the ‘alauahios and ‘Anianiau; nectarivores like the I’iwi, mamos, ‘apapanes, ‘Ākohekohe, and ‘Ula‘aihāwane; frugivores like the Rhodacanthis grosbeaks, koa-finches, palilas, ‘Ō‘ū, Telespiza finches, and Lanai Hookbill; gleaning insectivores like common ‘amakihis, ‘ākepas, ‘Akeke‘e, and Greater ‘Amakihi, and bark-picking insectivores like the ‘Akialoas, nukupu’us, ‘Ākiapōlā‘au, Kiwikiu, ‘Alawī, ‘Akikiki, and Po‘ouli. Some, such as the ‘akialoas, ‘amakihis, and ‘Ula‘aihāwane blur the lines between niches, exploiting multiple roles based on avalibility of food, and the Laysan and Nihoa finches have even been known to eat the eggs of seabirds when food is scarce
Living on an island can not only alter the physical appearance of a species, but also their behavior. Island species
However, being less responsive to predators can also work against a species, and that is what I will talk about in part 2...
Birding often requires one to look at the finer details, especially when a potential rarity is involved. One of the biggest ID challenges in my opinion is Snowy vs Little Egret. Snowy is common throughout North and South America, while Little occupies the same niche in Africa, Eurasia, and Oceania. When Little Egrets wander into North America, as they have done regularly since the 1980s after colonizing Barbados, identification becomes harder, but possible. I usually tell new birders to look at the bill and feet to distinguish between Great and Snowy Egrets (opposite patterns of black/yellow), but the possibility of a vagrant Little Egret makes that rule obsolete when comparing three species (don't get me started on Intermediate Egret, that's a new can of worms I am not ready to open). In an ideal situation, I would distinguish Little from Snowy by looking at the nuptial plumes, which are long on Little but short on Snowy. Unfortunately, both molt their head plumes in mid summer, which makes identifying one from a distance in late summer and fall a challenge. Up close, one has to look at the shape of the head (flat vs rounder) and lores on the bird, the patch of bare skin in between the eyes and the bill. On Little, the lores are dark gray in nonbreeding plumage while Snowy has yellow lores all year round, except for a short period of time in high breeding season when the lores turn bright red in Snowy (Little briefly has yellow-orange lores around the same time, but has mostly yellow lores in breeding season). I wasn't expecting a Little Egret to show up in New York, but when one was reported from Oceanside, I wasted no time getting there. Unfortunately, an hour of searching got me nothing, and one of the birds I considered to be the Little turned out to be a Snowy Egret...
One of the photo misidentifications Ryan caught me on was the Cackling vs Canada Goose complex, which seems to get me every time. To compensate for the one I had in January turn out to be a Canada Goose, I set a goal to find a Cackler of my own instead of chasing one someone already found. I thought I had found a good candidate for a Taverner's Cackling Goose, but after checking with several other birders, it turned out to be a small Canada Goose.
Today was the last day I had to do shorebird counts at the Coast Guard Station this fall, and I wasn't expecting to find anything unusual. However, besides the huge number of staging American Oystercatchers and Black-bellied Plovers, I found a small group of continuing Marbled Godwits, which have been around for a month already.
It was getting dark, and my dad and I decided to call it a day. As we were leaving the barrier island, we saw an unusual white bird fly across the causeway as we were driving. From the brief glimpse we had, the most distinctive feature we could see was the neck. Unlike egrets which hold their necks in an S-shape in flight, this bird was holding its neck straight out. Another feature that made me think it was not an egret was the way it flew; unlike the deep wingbeats of an egret, this bird’s wingbeats were quick and shallow. The only conclusion I could make was that this was an ibis, specifically a White Ibis! I had seen hundreds of White Ibises in Florida, but to see one in New York is extremely rare. According to eBird, there had been three previous records of White Ibis for Nassau County!
I was walking in between classes when I noticed another Canada Goose flock had landed on campus. In hopes of finding a Cackling Goose, I walked closer and managed to get one side by side with a Canada for comparison. This time, I was rewarded for my diligence.
The Evening Grosbeak is a snowbird, but not in the way most people would expect like Dark-eyed Juncos or humans who travel to the southern states for the winter from the northeast and upper Midwest. Typically, they stay in the boreal forests year round, occasionally moving south when seed crops up north run scarce. Ron Pittaway predicted that Evening Grosbeaks would be moving south in large numbers this fall. My first reaction when I found out one was seen at Sunken Meadow State Park was that I had to get over there immediately. When I got there, the grosbeak was gone, although a large group of Purple Finches was already at the same grove of berries where the grosbeak was first seen. There would be other opportunities to see Evening Grosbeak this year, so I was not very disappointed.
When you devote an entire year to looking for birds, one of them will inevitably be your birthday. For my birthday this year, I had talked my parents into taking me to Race Point, which is a renowned seawatching site on the very tip of Cape Cod. We spent the whole day before traveling to the Cape from Long Island. Even before we got outside, I had a Razorbill close to shore from the hotel window we were staying at. The weather report showed that we would be right in the path of a Nor'easter, but this didn't bother me because Tim Swain said it could make for great seawatching. Well, could. In practice, visibility wasn't good when I got to the cape, but I was able to pick out two Dovekie flying west. Seabirds that breed in the high latitudes were the reason I wanted to come to Race Point in late fall; the beach's position on the end of Cape Cod make it ideal to spot seabirds. On a day with considerable winds, one can see either shearwaters or alcids from shore, depending on the time of year. Among the other seabirds I got in the storm were three (that I was able to count) Black-legged Kittiwakes, a flyby Black Guillemot, a Northern Fulmar, and hundreds of scoters, gulls, and Common Eiders. A loon flew over, which I initially considered to be Pacific, but then identified it as Common just to be safe.
From there, we went to First Encounter Beach, where I saw in addition to Brants and gulls, a Manx Shearwater and a Red Phalarope flying in the bay. Then we searched for a Berkshire Hathaway store in Massachussets, where my mom took a picture in front of the store for reasons I will never understand. The last spot we went birding at was not in Massachusetts, but in Rhode Island. There, I managed to get Nelson's Sparrow for the year before it got too rainy and we had to drive home.
The Northern Wheatear is an interesting bird. It resembles a thrush and was even once classified as one; this arctic breeder is a flycatcher, not one related to the tyrant flycatchers farther south, but one of the old world. Widespread in Europe and Asia, Northern Wheatears are also present in disjunct breeding ranges Alaska and eastern Canada in the summer. All populations migrate to sub-Saharan Africa in the winter, even flying over the Atlantic Ocean to get there. Usually one or two gets lost and migrates in the opposite direction south towards the lower 48, and when that happens, birders take notice. I wasn’t expecting to see any wheatears this year, so you can imagine the shock I was feeling when a probable sighting of one in Suffolk county appeared in my New York needs alerts. Initially thinking it was a hoax like the recent sketchy reports of Eurasian Wren, Curlew Sandpiper, and Goldcrest; but when I saw the photos, my heart started racing because this was definitely real. I literally stopped what I was doing and was out the door 15 minutes later. By the time I got there, several other birders were lined up scoping the Northern Wheatear out. We stayed for about 20 minutes to get photos as it flitted between shrubs, fence posts, and a traffic cone before heading out.
As we were leaving, I got an alert for another Evening Grosbeak at Sunken Meadow, this time an adult male. My dad and I were originally going to head home after the wheatear chase, but I decided to go for the grosbeak while we were still on the road. As we got there, I saw the wing flash of the grosbeak as it flew across the road. I soon discovered I wouldn't be alone in the search for the Grosbeak, many other birders had the same idea to go for the grosbeak after the wheatear. We relocated it several times, but only managed to get photos the last time I relocated it, when the bird finally decided to stay put.
To be continued…
Lifers indicated in bold
In January, I got the first 100 species for the year within two days birding in Florida, and I had predicted that I would get to 400 for the year before or while my mom and I were back in Florida. Nine months and a 298 additional species later, it seems my ability to predict the future has proven much better than the last time I predicted when I would reach a milestone for the year (am I now Doctor Strange?), I rather boldly (and cautiously) claimed on The Bird Herd Discord server that "Tomorrow might be the day I finally get to 400 for the year." The last time I predicted I would get to a milestone, things did not go as I imagined and the results were, um, explosive for those who did not see my rather unprofessional Instagram story highlighting the trip. Can I prove my ability to see the future? Or will this be another claim that went up in flames?
I’m not exaggerating when I say the first thing we did upon arriving in Florida was look for more birds. Specifically, Florida Scrub-Jay, a species I normally save for last, but couldn’t because I would be in Hawaii in December, not Florida. I knew the “Scrub-Jay death march” at Jonathan Dickinson State Park like clockwork: park at the trailhead between the ranger station and the campground, walk all the way down until you find one, then head back at the trail intersection. A Short-tailed Hawk flew overhead, #399, as we set out for the trail. A Gopher Tortoise crossed the road. I was doubting we would even see a jay by the time we got to the tree where I had seen a pair in the last two years (Florida Scrub-Jays rarely stray far from their birthplace). Near the intersection, I saw the shape of a perching bird, which my mom thought was a mockingbird, but I had other thoughts. The wings, tail, and head were blue, and I could make out an eye stripe and white throat. I had no doubt this was a Florida Scrub-Jay, #400 for the year! Shortly after, I saw another three jays flying around the intersection. We stayed with them for about five minutes before heading back to my grandparents’ house where we would be staying for the weekend. Now that I had proven myself right by getting to 400 on the first day in Florida, I was full steam ahead on to 500.
Usually when I get up to bird the ponds outside my grandparents’ house, it’s on the first day of January and my yearlist is at zero. With the possible exception of Sandhill Crane, which has eluded me in Florida, Texas, and upstate New York, I wasn’t expecting to add anything new, just to get the ball rolling for October big day. I quickly got the usual cast of waterbirds, doves, and passerines (including bonus Magnolia Warbler and Yellow-throated Vireo). As I was studying a small group of sandpipers, I saw two Sandhill Cranes fly in and land within feet of me! I was beginning to worry that I would not see them this year, after they had eluded me on previous trips to Florida, Texas, and upstate New York, especially after being at Derby Hill and a birder seeing them after I left.
Being in Florida for October Big Day gave me a good reason to go to as many spots in Miami for non-native species as possible. The trip to go to all the spots for non-natives does not have an official name, but I’ve decided to refer to it as the Miami Exotic Run. Birders who go on the Exotic Run typically go to the following spots: Brewer Park for parrots and macaws, Markham Park for Spot-breasted Oriole, Charles Deering Estate for Scaly-breasted Munia, Kendall Baptist Hospital for Red-whiskered Bulbul, Ocean Bank for White-winged Parakeet, and Fairchild Tropical Botanical Gardens for Common Hill Myna. I had initially planned to go to all these spots as well as Bill Baggs for Thick-billed Vireo, Crandon Park for Wilson’s Plover, Black Point Marina for Mangrove Cuckoo, Lucky Hammock for Smooth-billed Ani, Brian Piccolo Park for Burrowing Owl, the agricultural fields in Kendall where a Zenaida Dove had been seen, and Green Cay to add Purple Gallinule, Gray-headed Swamphen, and Painted Bunting to the day list. Since we were leaving an hour behind schedule (I wanted to leave as early as possible to maximize birding time), I had to cut several spots out in order to be home by dinnertime. Since no recent reports of the ani, dove, or vireo had come in, I cut those spots out. I also cut Deering Estate out because I would have more opportunities to see munias in Hawaii, along with a whole menagerie of introduced species from Asia, Africa, and South America. The first spot we went to was Highland Oaks Park, one of many spots to see them, but I had picked this spot because it also had Gray Kingbirds nearby, which are fairly common in suburbs and coastal areas, but I wanted to get both native and introduced birds efficiently as possible, which meant I would need to get them in the same spots (I could've gotten more at Lucky Hammock along with Smooth-billed Ani, but I did not plan to go there unless an ani stuck around). Almost immediately upon arrival I found a pair of Gray Kingbirds perched on electrical wires, if only I can find the orioles. I first asked a group of birders if they had seen anything of interest, which they replied by asking if I could help them identify a sparrow (which I wasn't ready to call Clay-colored). I then made a path towards a large lake, where I found a Black-whiskered Vireo in one of the trees and a large group of Egyptian Geese and White Ibises on the shore. While checking the perimeter, I heard the screeches of a parrot, most likely Orange-winged, but I ignored it because I could not count it for the year. Two loops around the park later, I finally located a Spot-breasted Oriole.
Wilson's Plover is a shorebird, so by definition, this is a native bird. In Florida, the best spot to look for them is on the Gulf coast, but a few have been seen at Crandon Park in Key Biscayne. I had looked for them at the beginning of the year, fresh off the excitement of the Loggerhead Kingbird, but did not have much luck. My mom and I went back to the spot in hopes of seeing one, but did not see much of anything in terms of birds in the heat of the Florida sun, mostly iguanas basking on the shore.
Most parakeets are not countable in the ABA Area, but a few exceptions, Green, Monk, Nanday, Rose-ringed, and White-winged, have established populations large enough to count. Of these five, the one I needed most was White-winged (I would hopefully get Rose-ringed in Hawaii), the rarest of the seven established parrots in the ABA Area (Red-crowned Parrot and Rosy-faced Lovebird are the other two, while Thick-billed Parrot has been extirpated from the southwest and Carolina Parakeet is unfortunately extinct). Hundreds of thousands were imported to the US until 1972, and many of them escaped and bred. Unfortunately, due to competition with the similar Yellow-chevroned Parakeet and starlings, their populations have suffered a massive blow, declining up to 99% in their introduced range in just 5 years. As Yellow-chevroned and Blue-crowned Parakeets expand in population, Ocean Bank in Miami is the last stronghold of the White-winged Parakeet. My mom and I parked across the street and waited for a parakeet to appear, only seeing a Common Myna, before deciding to move on...
The next species we searched for is even harder than the parakeets to find: Mangrove Cuckoo, among the most poorly known North American birds. As their name implies, they only inhabit mangrove forests of South Florida, but can be found in other coastal habitats in their more extensive neotropical range. Skulking and secretive by nature, it is usually difficult to observe. As a result, most aspects of this species' reproductive biology, ecological requirements, and population dynamics remain a mystery. I was not expecting to see a Mangrove Cuckoo on this trip, let alone hear one. One of the few reliable spots to see a Mangrove Cuckoo is Black Point Marina, which is also home to manatees and crocodiles. Despite the low probability of seeing a cuckoo, I decided to try my luck at the marina anyway. We searched the mangroves along the shore of the marina with no luck, then decided to get lunch because we weren't having much luck with anything other than iguanas (one of which I spooked from its resting spot). As we were eating, I spotted a large gray mass emerge from the marina. This was definitely not a bird, but the closest living relative ever since non-avian dinosaurs died out 66 million years ago: an American Crocodile! Unlike American Alligators, which I usually give a passing glance while birding, crocodiles are the rarer of Florida's two native crocodilians. While alligators prefer freshwater swamps and marshes, American Crocodiles hunt in coastal estuaries and mangrove swamps, one of only two living* pseudosuchians to be comfortable in both freshwater and saltwater, along with the extremely dangerous Saltwater Crocodile of Oceania and Southeast Asia. Both alligators and crocodiles suffered from hunting for their skins to make handbags and belts, until the US government declared them endangered in the 1970s. The alligators made an incredible comeback, to the point of legal, carefully managed hunting to resume, but the crocodiles never made as big of a recovery and are classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List. Many people at the restaurant, including myself, watched as this ancient predator swam through the boat basin, then disappeared below the surface. Having come to my senses that finding a Mangrove Cuckoo was going to be harder I imagined outside of the Everglades and Florida Keys, we moved on to our last spot of the exotic run.
*I say living because a now extinct clade of pseudosuchians, Thalattosuchia, was widespread during the Jurassic and lower Cretaceous.
As we were leaving the marina, I was shocked to see a female Indian Peafowl on the side of the road. I have seen peafowl numerous times in captivity and running free in neighborhoods, but unlike this bird, they were domesticated. Until recently, I would've ignored this bird and kept moving on, but as of May 2018, the ABA deemed feral populations to have been breeding long enough to count for an ABA year list.
The last non-native species I needed from Miami is the Red-whiskered Bulbul. During the 1960s, populations of introduced Red-whiskered Bulbuls became established in southern Florida and southern California, although these populations remain small and limited in distribution. In contrast, a released population O‘ahu has proliferated. In Miami, Kendall is the best area to see the small population bulbuls left in the lower 48, and the preferred spot to see them is even weirder: the grounds of Kendall Baptist Hospital. We first tried driving around the hospital grounds after a mob of Muscovy Ducks attacked us for food, but that didn't get us too far. It was getting late, and in an act of desperation, I walked around a small garden near the entrance. I got a brief look at a Red-whiskered Bulbul before it dropped back into the brush, but as I was searching, a flock of parakeets flew over. These were mostly Mitred Parakeets, another common, but unfortunately non-countable species. In that flock, I spotted a Red-masked Parakeet, which is also not countable, several also non-countable Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, and my most-wanted White-winged Parakeet. My first attempt at birding the Miami Exotic Run has been a success!
I considered two options for birding the next day: either to try another spot on the coast where Wilson's Plovers have been reported, then go inland in search of King Rail, Fulvous Whistling-Duck, and Snail Kite; or try for the inland stuff first then bird on the coast. My mom, however, had a different idea: she wanted to get my grandfather interested in birding, so she insisted on going to Wakodahatchee to get him interested in birding, which I begrudgingly agreed to. Fortunately, as we were arriving, I spotted a Fulvous Whistling-Duck in a ditch across the street from the parking lot at Wakodahatchee, but I eBirded it for the main hotspot. When we got to the spot, I learned that after I explained how to identify a bird, I had to leave future identification on this trip to my grandfather. Among some of the more interesting finds were, aside from most of the stuff I got at the beginning of the year, the continuing Neotropic Cormorant, an also continuing Neotropic X Double-crested Cormorant hybrid (which my mom "accidentally" deleted my photos of), and two acts of predation: a Great Blue Heron stalking a tilapia and a White Ibis wrangling a snake, with the birds succeeding in each act.
In all the years I’ve been going down to Florida for birding, only one relatively easy (for the record, Mangrove Cuckoo and Antillean Nighthawk are not easy, as I've learned the hard way with the former) specialty bird has eluded me: Snail Kite. True to their name, Snail Kites only eat apple snails, which are common in freshwater wetlands throughout the neotropics. In North America, these snails are only found in Florida, preferably away from the highly-developed coast. I had found a reliable spot for one in Wellington that I was eager to try after going to Wakodahatchee. We started on a paved trail that extended to a boardwalk, where I saw many wading birds, including a heard-only King Rail. Shortly after, I picked out a female Snail Kite as it flew over the marsh looking for prey. Success! I decided to continue further on, also finding several Roseate Spoonbills, a Bachman's Sparrow as it flew across the path in a forested section of the preserve, more herons, swamphens, Limpkins, and Wood Storks, another Fulvous Whistling-Duck, and several Blue-winged Teal. As we were leaving for the airport, a Western Kingbird flew over the parking lot, ending a productive weekend in Florida. On to 500!
Back in New York, I found out that not only had Key West Quail-Dove and Bahama Mockingbird appeared in Palm Beach County a few days after I left Florida, but also a Kirtland's Warbler was there while I was there and not reported until after I left. I was slightly irked by this after having missed the one in Central Park this spring by an hour, but I had little power to do anything about it. Next time...
To be continued…
Lifers indicated in bold
Like many birders, the last week of August gets me excited, and with good reason: fall migration begins to pick up. While shorebirds have been passing through all summer, the long distance migrants between the arctic circle and southern South America are beginning to arrive. One of those I’ve been looking forward to is Baird’s Sandpiper. These large peeps are most common in the plains states on migration, but regularly occur in small numbers every fall. One was found on a sod farm in Yaphank, and I had nothing but time on my hands to look for it. My grandmother and I drove out to the spot, where I got out with my scope and scanned the field. At first I saw only Killdeer, Mourning Doves, and European Starlings, but then I spotted the shape of a Calidris through the haze. Long primary projection, buffy face and neck, clean break between buff and white underparts. This was a Baird’s! I got pics through my scope (keep in mind, my camera broke on the pelagic), then my grandmother and I headed back to eat lunch and get my camera fixed.
There are four species of godwit worldwide: Bar-tailed, Black-tailed, Hudsonian, and Marbled. Of those, Hudsonian is both the least studied and the only regularly ocurring one in North America I needed for the year (all four have been recorded in North America; Siberian Bar-tailed also nests in western Alaska and Black-tailed can show up anywhere, including a Black-tailed reported minutes after I booked a surprise flight home this spring). Breeding in disjunct areas across the Arctic from western Alaska to James Bay, they are capable of flying nonstop to the "cone" of South America. Several of them stop over on the east coast between late August and September each year. They can show up at any location on the coast, but one of the most reliable spots for them in New York is Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (managed by the National Park Service, not USFWS). I had signed up for NYC Audubon's Jamaica Bay Shorebird Festival in the hopes of getting one there, and, just as according to plan, one was reported from the east pond. I made sure to get onto the shorebirding trip to the pond for my best bet at seeing the godwit. I trekked out onto the pond with a large group of birders, where many sandpipers, plovers, Double-crested Cormorants, Canada Geese, and a Little Blue Heron. Soon enough, we spotted some of the more desired shorebirds such as Western, Baird's and Stilt Sandpipers, and my most wanted Hudsonian Godwit. As I was walking out the pond, I realized the extent to which my boots and socks were covered in mud, and without a change of shoes handy, I was unable to do anything else for the rest of the day.
Today I really felt like a mess: I first tried to do a shorebird count at the coast guard station, though I saw absolutely no shorebirds at all. Next, I went looking for a Lark Sparrow at West End, but came up empty handed. Finally, I went after a Western Kingbird, which, despite the name, is annual in the east in fall. Unfortunately, I got there an hour after it was last seen and it did not come back...
With Hudsonian Godwit down, there was one shorebird I needed for the year: Buff-breasted Sandpiper. A true "grasspiper," this species prefers sod farms, airports and farmland to mudflats and beaches on their migration from upland tundra to the pampas of South America. One particularly good location on Long Island to check are the sod farms outside of Riverhead. Two days before fall semester started, I ventured out to the sod farms along the Doctors Path, which often gets this sandpiper on migration. When we got there, other birders were already on something, which turned out to be a pair of Baird's Sandpipers. After scanning intently, a Buff-breasted Sandpiper flew in and landed near a tractor in the middle of the field. Having seen every northeastern shorebird for the year except Upland Sandpiper, Red Phalarope, and the always alluring chance of an out-of-nowhere rarity, we headed home to make final preparations for school.
The common names given to birds don't always make sense at first, a lesson taught well by the Connecticut Warbler. One would think the best place to look for them is Connecticut, but they are named for the state Alexander Wilson first collected one on migration. Basically you have three options on how to see one in North America: find one in the midwest in spring, go to their breeding range in central Canada and the northern Great Lakes, or in the Northeast in fall. Unlike most warblers, which hop around through the canopy of forests, the Connecticut is a master skulker, preferring to lurk in dense undergrowth and walk on the ground, making them hard to spot in fall unless you know where to look. I figured my best chance to get one for the year would be in Central Park. I asked Ryan if he would help me look for one after I got out of a bar mitzvah for my cousin (the only reason I went was to bird in the park afterwards), which he gladly agreed to. I considered that the cooler temperatures compared to the last few days would make songbirds more active and visible, and Ryan said these were good conditions to find a Connecticut. All we needeed was one to cooperate. We started near the Conservatory Pond and then weaved through The Ramble, checking out areas with lots of bird activity as we went along; some of which included eight warbler species, a Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, 6 Baltimore Orioles, among others. As we were making our rounds through the Ramble, Ryan got an alert for a Connecticut Warbler in Manhattan. However, there was a catch: it was seen on Governor's Island, in the far south of New York County. Ferries to and from the island leave on the half hour, which left us with a dilemma: do we continue through the park so I can get back to the party so I can head back to Long Island the same time my parents did, or do we take the gamble on the Connecticut? Naturally, I suggested the latter, so we made our way out of the park and towards a subway station to the ferry terminal. En route, Ryan gave me some tips for my upcoming trip to Hawaii in December as well as pointing out some mislabeled photos in previous chapters, which resulted in me taking three species of my yearlist: Franklin's Gull, Cackling Goose, and American Golden Plover. Fortunately, Ryan said, I still had time to find the latter of the two before the end of the year, but if I would find another Franklin's Gull candidate is uncertain. Once we got to Governor's Island, we started our search for the Connecticut Warbler by heading straight for Nolan Park, where the bird had first been seen. To cover more ground and have a better chance of finding the bird, Ryan, Gabriel Willow (the finder of the warbler), and I split up to check different areas of the park. Ryan and I were checking the bushes off to the side of one of the island's many buildings surrounding the park when he said he thought he had the Connecticut, but as I was getting my point-and-shoot ready to get documentation, it turned out to be a Common Yellowthroat, false alarm. We continued to search the island for an hour and 15 minutes before running back to the ferry terminal to catch a boat back to Manhattan and a subway back to Penn Station so I can take a train home by myself. As I was leaving, I told Ryan that I would hopefully be able to drop in next time a rarity was seen either in November or December, to which he said I would be even rarer, "you're still flagged." I got back to the nearest train station to my home around 7 PM, satisfied with a full afternoon of birding despite not finding what I was looking for.
I thought I had all the regularly occurring northeastern shorebirds excluding Upland Sandpiper with the recent addition of Buff-breasted, but with my American Golden-Plover report from this spring turning out to be a Black-bellied Plover, I needed to improvise. After class, I went to Breezy point in search of one but came up empty.
I went to Jones Beach in search of a Connecticut Warbler reported there, but unfortunately came up empty. The next day, I got an alert for another American Golden-Plover, this time at the Coast Guard Station. Upon arrival, I saw a large flock of Black-bellied Plovers take off, and with them was the American Golden-Plover which I picked out by the “to-whit” call as it flew off. I continued to scan the flocks gathering on the spit when I saw three unfamiliar shapes land near a group of Red Knots. At first I thought they were Willets, but then I realized that those upturned bills could only belong to godwits. I quickly identified them as a Marbled and two Hudsonian Godwits! Guess I didn't need to go to Jamaica Bay after all...
I went back to Jones Beach in search of a Philadelphia Vireo reported there, with no luck refinding it. Later, I went to Alley Pond Park to look for a Western Kingbird, but also came up empty handed. To add insult to injury, the kingbird was refound an hour later.
NOAA's radar showed strong winds overnight, so I got up early the next morning to bird in my backyard in the hopes of finding new birds there and save myself the trouble of chasing something I need (if you remember, Max and I found a Mourning Warbler in my yard this spring). I didn't find anything new or rare, but I added two new birds to the yardlist: Black-billed Cuckoo and Red-breasted Nuthatch. While I was in class (thankfully my last one for the day), Ryan texted me about another report of a Philadelphia Vireo at the coast guard station, so I went over after class to check it out. This time, I was much more lucky, as I managed to identify one by call and see it fly across the path.
Finches are starting to move. Up north, seed crops of birch and pine cones are poor according to Ontario field ornithologist Ron Pittaway, who predicts the scale at which northern finches will move south in the winter and publishes his forecast for the northeastern states and eastern Canada through Jean Iron's website every September. He predicted that this would be an irruption year for nearly all finches; redpolls, Pine Siskins, Purple Finches, Evening Grosbeaks, the highly coveted Pine Grosbeak, but not crossbills, which irrupted last winter (I saw both in the Adirondacks). Red-breasted Nuthatches and Bohemian Waxwings are also predicted to move south in large numbers. If the irruption is as good for all species as Pittaway predicted it would be, I should not have to go far to find finches and waxwings. For the time being, I had a good bird with a silly name on the brain, Dickcissels. This relative of cardinals is a common breeder in the grasslands of the continental interior between the Rockies and Appalachians, irregularly occuring further east. My best bet to find one on the coast is in fall, where they are scarce but regular in migration. With a fresh report of 3 from a morning flight earlier that week at Robert Moses State Park, I decided to check if at least one was still there. I first checked the volleyball courts, where a Lark Bunting that I missed by an hour was seen last year, and circled the perimeter looking for other migrants, including Blackpoll and Wilson's Warblers. As I was about to move on, I flushed a Dickcissel, which I identified by its "bzzzt" call. In addition to birding the parking lots, we also decided to check out the Fire Island Hawkwatch, which my mom wanted me to go to in October with my local Audubon Society (fat chance), where we totaled over 20 Merlins and over 30 Monarchs
I went back to Robert Moses State Park determined to find a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker before the end of the month. I searched the dunes first, coming up with mostly sparrows (including Clay-colored) and Yellow-rumped Warblers, plus another Dickcissel. As we were leaving, I spotted the silhouette of a sapsucker perched on a tree. Mission complete!
Meanwhile, farther south, birders in Cape May reported an impressive high count of 1,570 Red-breasted Nuthatches from morning flight. Begun, the irruption has.
To be continued...
Lifers indicated in bold
One Sunday night, a team of intrepid birders assembled at a harbor on Sheepshead Bay. This team included Paulagics operator Paul Guris, Field Guides tour leader Tom Johnson, Doug Gochfield, Macaulay Library staff member Jay McGowan, Stony Brook professor Doug Futuyma (who, co-authored the textbook I used for my principles of evolution class), Gail Benson, Peter Paul, Sean Sime, fellow young birder Adrian Burke, and, of course, myself. The plan was to motor out to Hudson canyon, a submarine canyon at the edge of the continental shelf, overnight to get there at dawn, bird in the area for as long as possible, and then return to port around 9 pm. Once at the canyon, we would set up a chum slick in hopes of attracting petrels, shearwaters, and storm-petrels. We would also keep an eye on the skies for terns, jaegers, and the highly coveted South Polar Skua. Our main target is the White-faced Storm-Petrel, a seabird of the southern oceans that has only recently occurred regularly off the continental shelf in the North Atlantic. We were also given the usual ground rules: only biodegradable material goes in the toilets unless it comes out the way it went in, stay out of the cabin if you get seasick, etc… but most importantly, no bananas, an old superstition that bringing a banana on a boat is bad luck. With the rules set and our sleeping arrangements figured out, we boarded and set sail for the open sea…
I could barely sleep through the night with the pitching and tossing of a moving boat, only drifting in and out of consciousness. Just before daybreak, I heard the flight calls of what I thought sounded like a Solitary Sandpiper. Then I saw the shape of a bird flying through the boat’s lights, most likely a storm-petrel. Could it be a White-faced? Since everyone else was sleeping and I didn’t have a camera handy, I had no way of confirming my suspicions.
We had barely reached the 1,000 fathom line (1 fathom is 6 feet for anyone who was wondering about the conversion factor) before we had our first Leach’s Storm-Petrel of the trip. Once we set up the slick, we had 3 more Leach’s, followed by a Band-rumped Storm-Petrel, four Black-capped Petrels, several Cory’s and Great Shearwaters, Wilson’s Storm-Petrels, and an Audubon’s Shearwater at 6:30. Unlike the oceanitid storm-petrels of the Southern Hemisphere like Wilson’s and White-faced, the storm-petrels of the northern hemisphere are a different family: the hydrobatids. These storm-petrels spend less time dancing on the surface of the water (or hopping like kangaroos in the case of White-faced) and instead spend more time flying over water; Leach’s flies more erratically, almost like a nighthawk and Band-rumped more smoothly. Because of their shorter legs, hydrobatids have to sit on the surface of the water and slurp food from the water unlike Wilson’s which can pick food off the surface. A third hydrobatid, European Storm-Petrel, is rare in North American waters.
Later, many of the same birds were present at the chumslick, as well as a flock of Red-necked Phalaropes that flew over. A pod of Pilot Whales was also in the area.
Later, while we were on the same chum slick, the fishermen also using this boat caught a Blue Shark, which we all got to watch them reel in, measure (8 feet long), and release back into the ocean. I had no doubt this shark was attracted to the boat by the same chum slick we were using to lure seabirds in with, as sharks are among the ocean’s most successful opportunists, a trait that has helped them survive everything from the Great Dying to the K-Pg mass extinction. As for Blue Sharks, they are among the most successful of the pelagic sharks, wandering the oceans from the arctic to the Antarctic in search of any opportunity the ocean provides from schools of fish to krill swarms to even whale carcasses. They are also often at the scene of shipwrecks and have occasionally attacked humans
Moving towards the mouth of the canyon, about 6,000 feet deep, we began to set up the second chum slick of the trip and then drifted. While the usual cast of seabirds trickled in, a pod of Risso's Dolphins approached the boat, providing good views and many photo opportunities. Unlike Bottlenose Dolphins, Risso’s is a deep water species not often encountered from land, instead favoring the edges of continental shelves and submarine canyons. They dive deep to hunt for organisms that live deep in the oceans, a particular favorite is the Greater Argonaut (Argonauta argo).
We were all focusing on the dolphins when Tom Johnson yelled "TRINDADE PETREL!!" at around 9:25, stirring excitement among the group. Like most of the people on board, this would be a lifer for me, and one that had flown completely under my radar. Fortunately, I did not have to race to one side of the boat or another as I had with the Phalaropes in Montauk, as the petrel circled the boat many times giving everyone on board great looks, obviously attracted to the chum slick, staying for about four minutes. I would later find out that Trindade Petrels are a Southern Hemisphere species most common in the , this was the third record ever for New York; previously seen by a cruise ship in NY waters in 2012 and before that astonishingly from upstate in 1933 at Boyer Creek Farm; both under the name Herald Petrel, until it was split in 2013 into Herald and Henderson's in the Pacific Ocean and Trindade in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Note: If you're pronouncing "Trindade" as "Trin-DAYD," that is incorrect. Johnson said the correct pronounciation is "Trin-da-GEE," also remarking that a pelagic operator* in North Carolina had a custom shirt that said "Who's your Trindaddy?"
After the Trindade Petrel moved on, I remarked that I was only one away from ABA 500 for life. What would the lucky 500 be?
The Trindade Petrel wasn't the only tropical seabird we recorded on the trip, as shortly after we spotted two Bridled Terns (yup, the same species I barely saw in the last post) being harassed by an unidentified jaeger (Long-tailed? Pomarine? Parasitic is the least likely of the three to occur offshore, and I had even seen them from land in Cape May and Long Island). Another birder asked me if the Bridled Terns were my ABA 500, which I said was not, referencing the Great Gull Island bird, which other birders said they felt pretty stupid for chasing. If any family of birds were to live the pirate’s life, it would be the skuas and jaegers. Skuas, the barrel-chested marauders of the family, mostly terrorize oceans of the Southern Hemisphere**, although Great Skuas, the unholy offspring of Pomarine Jaegers and wandering South Polar Skuas from generations of hybridization, breed on islands in the northern Atlantic, moving south in winter; South Polar (the one we were looking for) breeds in the Antarctic and prowls the oceans of the northern hemisphere in the austral winter. The more lightly-built jaegers, by contrast, breed in the arctic tundra and winter at sea in tropical and subtropical waters (Long-tailed winters in the same Southern Hemisphere waters prowled by skuas). Both clades will viciously chase and harass other seabirds until they regurgitate their last meal. On land, jaegers and skuas raid the nests of birds, eating the eggs, chicks, and sometimes even adults of waterfowl, terns, ptarmigans, shorebirds, and most famously penguins. Even mammals know better than to approach a jaeger nest. While frigatebirds, the pirates of tropical seas, patrol subtropical and equatorial seas, nowhere is safe from a skua. Around 10:00, an immature Pomarine Jaeger appeared and repeatedly circled the boat, even catching a piece of fish that was tossed up to it. “That,” I said, “was ABA 500 for life!” With 500 for ABA life achieved, I was now ready to get 500 for year.
Moving along the eastern wall of the canyon, we were still in fairly deep water when we encountered a second Pomarine Jaeger, 105 Wilson’s Storm-Petrels, more shearwaters, BCPE, and Oceanodroma, an unidentified cetacean, and a pod of Striped Dolphins. These are also an offshore species, but unlike the Risso’s we’ve observed, these were more acrobatic.
Around noon, we started to head inshore from the 500 fathom line towards an area with recent reports of cetaceans and fish, hoping to find more seabirds. At this spot, we saw over 50 pilot whales, 8 Risso’s Dolphins, and a Portuguese Man o’ war, as well as many of the same birds we’ve been seeing. Pilot whales are yet another genus of deep water dolphins, and they also dive deep to hunt for prey. Two species are recognized: Long-finned in the North Atlantic and Southern Hemisphere, and Short-finned worldwide. The only way to identify the individuals to the species level is by the length of the flippers, which we were unable to get looks at. I have wanted to see either species long before I picked up birding, but unfortunately, our camera broke while trying to save it from the pitching and tossing of the boat. However, the most impressive sighting was a flock of 470 Wilson’s Storm-Petrels! Since the camera was broken, we could not get pictures of the flock
Around 13:15, the fishing crew caught a Mahi-mahi around a lobster buoy, and around 13:38, we stopped to drop the final chum slick of the day. Shortly after, we attracted the tubenoses back, as well as a small shark of uncertain species (Doug said it was possibly another Blue, but I think it was a mako based on the length of the caudal lobes compared to one another, most likely Shortfin, the more common of the two species).
We began to run inshore at 2:00 pm, though still in the canyon, where we saw, in addition to more tubenoses and pilot whales, 3 offshore Bottlenose Dolphins. Bottlenose Dolphins have two population types: inshore and offshore. Inshore populations, which I’ve seen in Cape May this year, typically stay within a fixed home range within 3 km of land, while offshore communities prefer to live >4km from land and travel wider areas in search of food.
As we ventured closer to land, many of the same Wilson’s Storm-Petrels and shearwaters were present, although we had good looks at another Audubon’s Shearwater, at one particularly birdy spot we got our first Sooty Shearwater of the trip. As we entered Nassau County waters, tubenoses became scarce and gulls and terns increased in abundance, although we had a close Cory’s Shearwater in the Queens stretch of the trip, not normally seen in the county. We finally got back to Brooklyn around 9 pm. I was thrilled to have made it on my first real pelagic trip (the ones I’ve done previously don’t count because land was always in sight, although I had some good shearwaters on a whale watch boat in San Diego). This was definitely not the last pelagic I would do, but it’s going to be an uphill battle to convince my dad to go on another one. In total I got 7 ABA lifers, three/four mammal lifers (depending on the ID of the pilot whales), and two fish lifers on this trip. The biggest miss of the trip was South Polar Skua, and I left the Brooklyn VI with several unanswered questions: what species of jaeger was chasing the Bridled Terns (of the three, I needed Long-tailed)? Is the superstition that having bananas onboard causes bad luck invalid because we found New York’s third Trindade Petrel (I saw Doug and Tom eating bananas on the way back)? Could I have actually seen the only White-faced Storm-Petrel of the trip before we even started birding? Part of what makes birding fun is the species that go unidentified as much as the ones you can identify…
To be continued...
*I think Brian Patteson had the "Who's your Trindaddy?" shirt, but I forgot who Johnson specifically said it was
**Great and South Polar are the only two skuas to venture into the northern hemisphere, although the carcass of a presumed Brown Skua from Bermuda may represent the first record of this species from the northern hemisphere
Lifers indicated in bold
When you're doing a big year, you should make it a priority to get the most common non-migratory species in your area onto your list as early on in the year as possible, then focus on less common species or wait for a rarity you need to be reported. I made it a goal to get all the non-migratory species in New York state by the end of April, and for the most part, I had succeeded. Except two*. The first one, Boreal Chickadee should have been an easy one at Bloomingdale Bog this winter along with Canada Jays and Black-backed Woodpeckers, although that was the one species we missed, along with Northern Shrike (my other two attempts have not been successful either). The second was Eastern Screech-Owl, which I had tried for at Croton Point Park in January and in Manhattan this spring with Max, but did not succeed either time. I have tried to set numerous dates aside over the summer to look for them, but none of them had worked out until now. One night, my grandparents wanted to know if I was interested in going to my cousin’s house for dinner, who happen to live 10 minutes from the owl spot I had in mind, so I was able to convince them to take me to the spot after dinner. We got there around 9:15 and within a few seconds heard several Eastern Screech-Owls. Success!
*There is a third nonmigratory species in New York, Spruce Grouse, which I did not try for because the only reliable spot for them in the state is on private property.
Saw a Least Bittern at DeKorte Park, which I could not get photos of.
We went on a whale watching trip out of Montauk in the hopes of seeing new birds and whales. In total, we saw five Finback Whales, one Minke, one Humpback, four Red-necked Phalaropes, and several Cory's Shearwaters (including one of the nominate subspecies or Scopoli's Shearwater, a split that was proposed the AOS this year but never passed)
Ask most birders in New York what beaches they would recommend for birding, and most will include Cupsogue. Unlike Jones Beach or Nickerson, which I can easily get to and from, Cupsogue is usually a full-day trip for me, so by staying in the Hamptons overnight after the whale watch, I would be able to access Cupsogue more easily. Since I had exhausted all the coastal birds I needed for the year, there were some birds I came to add for my state list: Whimbrel, Marbled Godwit (both of which I had seen in Texas) and Seaside Sparrow (seen in Cape May). I took a path along the bay side of the beach, which I had correctly assumed would have the most shorebirds. I ran into a birder visiting from California (sadly, he did not know either Max or Jonah) who was looking for Glossy Ibis and Saltmarsh Sparrow. After a few minutes, we found several Saltmarsh Sparrows, so I went on to look for the godwit. I spotted it on one sandbar with several Short-billed Dowitchers, but by the time I came back with my camera, it was gone. I later found the godwit and dowitchers on another sandbar with Common Terns, Herring Gulls, two Western Willets, and a Whimbrel. Satisfied with the godwit and three Saltmarsh Sparrows, my mom and I headed for our next spot.
I had planned to go on another boat trip this week in addition to the whale watch from Montauk and the Brooklyn Pelagic: a lighthouse cruise from Orient Point. Normally, I would avoid trips that do not have a biological component, but this was an exception: a Bridled Tern has been roosting on Great Gull Island for the past week, and the boat passes by the island. Unfortunately, it did not go as planned, as the boat was moving too fast for me to get a good look at anything, so I cannot confidently say if I saw it or not. Considering a Bridled Tern was seen by a research vessel in New York waters a month earlier, I may be able to have a second chance later this week...
To be continued…
World lifers indicated in bold
When I first birded in Central Park this year, Ryan asked me if, after he returned from Hog Island, that I would meet up with him and Jonah Benningfield, another young birder going to Hog Island that would be staying with Ryan the week after. The reason we decided to meet up on Monday is because we would be joined by two more young birders: Tucker and Baxter Beamer, the latter was also at Hog Island last week. (fun fact: I met both at the Black-backed Oriole stakeout last winter) We spent most of the time photographing baby terns at the eastern colony and getting dive bombed by the parents before I eventually had to leave the group.
I had no class today, so I spent the day working on algebra homework and trying the 4th of July Birding Challenge. For the challenge, participants have to try and see every species that begins with the word “American,” any species that begins with the name of a U.S. state, Bald Eagle, Wild Turkey, the official birds of each U.S. state, and Red-tailed Hawk. Unfortunately, I did poorly because of poor planning in an effort to get to the coast for American Oystercatcher, and getting to a known Bald Eagle nest when the eaglets had most likely left the nest. I only managed to see 8 species and didn't get Red-tailed Hawk, a species I can under normal circumstances never seem to avoid, until the last minute.
The next day, I went to Robert Moses state park for a seawatch, where I got several shearwaters (including Manx), two Wilson's Storm-Petrels, and many terns.
As I had promised at the kickoff, I would be leading another field trip to Nickerson Beach this year. Some highlights included a continuing group of Common Eiders and two Gull-billed Terns.
My patch at Jones Beach is a peninsula. Most of my shorebird counts have been on the bay side, which I thought was easy, yet boring. I wanted to try a spot on the ocean side of the peninsula, which turned out to be no better than the bay side because I was attacked by swarms of mosquitos entering and exiting the beach.
As I was completing my new route, I got an alert about the presence of a Wilson’s Phalarope on the west pond at Jamaica Bay wildlife refuge. Finally, a bird I needed for this year! This was attempt two, as I had missed one at Heckscher State Park earlier this year. When my dad and I got to the pond, we were both swarmed by mosquitos again, forcing us to buy bug spray at the refuge visitor center. Since I had chosen to not bring a scope to the shorebird count, we had to stand on benches to get a better look through the foliage surrounding the pond. After straining, I got a glimpse of the phalarope near a group of Double-crested Cormorants. Since Wilson’s is surprisingly not flagged in summer, I didn’t need to add any more details, and then got out as quickly as possible. Worth every mosquito bite.
To be continued…
This part of my Paleobirding series will trigger you in one of two ways: either by giving away the entire plot of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom if you haven't seen it yet (I am posting this a month after the film was released to give people time to see it), or by ruining your childhood movie monsters for the 65 millionth time. If you haven't seen FK yet and don't want to know about major parts of the story-line, then don't read this post. I was originally going to give an entire summary of the plot, but due to some people saying that my post on feathers was too long, I've decided only to break down the inaccuracies of the major scenes that have specific inaccuracies I need to point out. At the end, I will rate the movie based on my honest opinion, not on rating the level of accuracy (which might be a factor). I may continue this format whenever I review movies on this site. Now that you've been warned, let's begin.
I had low expectations for Fallen Kingdom ever since I saw the first trailer back in December, and I was unfortunately right. Acting and cast was subpar (out of the cast, I was only familiar with Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, and B.D. Wong who were in the previous film, and Wong played Dr. Wu in the first film). That's not what I'm here to review, I'm going to talk about the science of Jurassic World II, or more accurately, the pseudoscience of it. Hang on to your butts.
Fallen Kingdom takes place three years after the demise of the Jurassic World theme park on Isla Nublar, the dinosaurs roam freely and try to fight to survive on the island until a volcanic eruption from Mount Sibo threatens their existence. On Isla Nublar, a group of mercenaries are sent to recover the bones of the Indominus rex from the Jurassic World lagoon for at the time unspecified purposes. A submersible is sent down to retrieve the bones, and it sends them up on a buoy before it is attacked by the Mosasaurus. The people on land who opened the gate to the lagoon lose contact with the submarine pilots. The surface team has their own problems as well, as when Isla Nublar's veteran Tyrannosaurus rex attacks the group, they have to grab the I. rex fragment and get out as soon as possible. One man is left on the ground and their helicopter lets down a rope ladder. They escape the Tyrannosaurus but the man on the rope ladder is swallowed by the Mosasaurus after it jumps into the air, and the Mosasaurus escapes into the open ocean. I will address the anatomical problems with Rexy later, so for now, I will focus on the inaccuracies of the Mosasaurus. While commonly labeled “aquatic dinosaurs” by pop culture, mosasaurs are not dinosaurs, their taxonomic alignment is within Squamata, which includes lizards and snakes, more spefically, monitor lizards. In this model of the Mosasaurus, there are several problems with its anatomy: first being the the tail is wrong, a Prognathodon specimen had an impression that resembles a tail fluke like in other marine vertebrates. A tail fluke would allow a mosasaur to swim faster to catch prey, which includes whatever animals can fit in its massive jaws or cannot swim away. Second, because of their close relationship with monitor lizards (which have forked tongues to taste the air for traces of prey), Mosasaurus should also have a forked tongue for the same reasons. Third, melanosomes (pigment cells) in the scales on a Platecarpus specimen indicate that mosasaurs had countershading, which is a coloration pattern with darker color on top, and lighter on the bottom, making it harder for prey (and predators for smaller mosasaurs like Globidens and Cliadestes) to see them. Sharks, cetaceans, pelagic fishes, penguins, and Leatherback Turtles also have this coloration. The last anatomical inaccuracy I have to point out are the osteoderm ridges, which no living or extinct squamate has, the scales overlap.
The last inaccuracy about the Mosasaurus I have to point out is its size: while it’s common for pop culture to exaggerate the size of extinct animals, with common examples being Velociraptor (which I will discuss in this post), the Carnotaurus in Disney’s Dinosaur, the mammoths, saber-toothed cat, and possibly the terror bird in 10,000 BC, many of the “extinct*” animals in 1 Million Years BC, possibly Megalodon in The Meg (which comes out this summer, I may see this for fun), and most famously Ornithecheirus (now Tropegnathus) and Liopleurodon in the Walking With... series, among others. The largest species of mosasaur, Mosasaurus hoffmannii, has been estimated to be 60 feet long based on fossil remains. This mosasaur’s size exaggeration, however, is in a category of its own; one might call it a “kaiju,” or giant monster. Estimates given by other paleo-enthusiasts who’ve tried to fact check Jurassic World vary due to inconsistencies with the scaling when compared to the underwater viewing area seen during feeding sessions and when it drags the Indominus to its death (which is roughly the same size as the T. rex and would’ve grown to 50 feet when fully grown according to Dr. Wu), but one I’ve heard places it around 80-100 feet, roughly the size of a blue whale at the higher end and about the same size as the Liopleurodon from Walking With series at the lower end. In the few scenes where we see more of the Mosasaurus’s body, it appears to have gotten bigger. Unlike theropods and synapsids, which reach a maximum size upon achieving sexual maturity, fish and reptiles grow throughout their lives provided there is enough food and space to do so. This is why some of the biggest fish caught are estimated to have lived considerably long lives by the time they are caught, and how Walking With Dinosaurs justified the massive size of the Liopleurodon (plus estimates made based on Pliosaurus funkei aka “Predator X”. The Mosasaurus lagoon on Isla Nublar is nowhere as big as the Tethys or Western interior seaways, and without regular feeding from park staff, the Mosasaurus should not be able to have achieved its current size. In figure 6, I posted a comparison of scenes from the two most recent movies where the Mosasaurus’s head is seen in comparison to the monorail.
*most of the extinct animals in this movie were modern animals that were made to look bigger using camera angles and scaling issues, the "Tyrannosaurus" was actually smaller than it was in real life
"I need your team to bring me back this specific dinosaur
for shady reasons i'm not going to tell you about"
This has prompted a campaign to save them, because, gosh dang it, we can’t let the poor dears go extinct all over again. Genetically engineered abominations have feelings too. Claire (you know – high heels) is involved in the Dinosaur Protection Group, which is lobbying the US Congress to go and spirit the dinosaurs away to safety.After listening to a brief speech by Ian Malcolm, Congress rejects this idea as totally bonkers, and Claire goes into a sulk. InGen/Masrani’s creations are all consumed by lava, and everyone gets on with their lives. The end? Claire then meets Benjamin Lockwood, an old business partner of John Hammond, who agrees to fund the rescue mission and bring the dinosaurs to a new sanctuary island where they will be left to live on their own, safe from human interference (or so we think). Lockwood's assistant, Eli Mills, asks Claire to recruit Owen Grady, a former raptor trainer who worked at the park, to find and capture Blue, the last surviving Velociraptor. Mills doesn't give too many details on why he needs Blue, but Claire recruits Owen to help her rescue the remaining dinosaurs from the island. At first, Owen declines this offer, but he eventually agrees to go.
Claire and Owen then set off on a charter plane with Zia Rodriguez, a paleo-veterinarian, and Franklin Webb, an IT expert, both from the Dinosaur Protection Group. Once their plane lands, the group is surprised to find a large base camp has already been set up, and they are met by Ken Wheatley, a big game and trophy hunter (greaaat). They all set off along with a group of mercenaries to reactivate an abandoned radio communications tower that they will use to find the dinosaurs via their RFID chip implants. Along the way while passing through the Jurassic World main street, they encounter a Brachiosaurus. While this dinosaur's depiction has aged relatively well, I have a few nitpicks, the first being that the dinosaur InGen's brachiosaur has been reclassified as Giraffatitan, which used to be a species of Brachiosaurus named B. brancai (the only accepted species in Brachiosaurus is B. altithorax, as B. atalaiensis has been reassigned to Lusotitan). The other is that brachiosaurs would've held their necks at a 45-60 degree angle, not straight up. Sauropods had long necks to act as a counterbalance for their long tails. Lastly, I think it might be too skinny: It's common for paleoartists to go easy on sof tissue when reconstructing dinosaurs, and sauropods are no exception. Brachiosaurus might have had a nasal pouch on its head, however, this is all speculation.
Owen, Zia, Wheatley and some of the mercenaries go to find Blue. Owen suggests that he set out on his own to find Blue, and the others stay behind at the truck. When Owen comes upon the fallen Explorer 04 near the old Tyrannosaur Paddock from the first Jurassic Park, Blue jumps out and Owen tries to bond with her before she is tranquilized by Wheatley and his mercenaries. Angry, Blue tackles a mercenary before he draws his sidearm and shoots up at Blue, much to Wheatley's and Owen's dismay. Owen tries to attack Wheatley but Wheatley tranquilizes him and threatens to shoot Zia. Zia says that she is the only one who can keep Blue alive and Wheatley puts his weapons down. I know, it seems like I can't talk about Jurassic Park without complaining about how the Velociraptors are not even Velociraptors and that they should have feathers and inward facing hands, even though I devoted the first post in my paleontology to what feathers are and which groups of dinosaurs had them (seriously, if you haven't read it by this point, I suggest you do so NOW), so in the interest of not beating a dead Humminghorse, I will reiterate that from the incredibly well preserved fossil of Zhenyuanlong, we know that dromaeosaurs had a full tail fan of pennaceous feathers, contour feathers covering the body, and most importantly, pennaceous feathers on the arms to form wings.
Mt. Sibo erupts, causing the mercenaries protecting Claire and Franklin to panic and drive off, locking them inside the old communications center. A Baryonyx surprises them by crawling through an old tunnel, but is temporarily held at bay by falling lava. Franklin and Claire narrowly escape through an emergency ladder and lock the Baryonyx inside the communications center. On one hand, the inclusion of Baryonyx in the fifth film is in my opinion long overdue for the Jurassic Park series because of how prominently it appeared in companion books, websites, and games. On the other, the producers did NOT do this spinosaur justice. The first problem is in the hands, not only are they pronated incorrectly as is standard with Jurassic Park theropod reconstructions, it's missing the hook-like claw on the second finger which most spinosaurids would've used to spear fish with. On top of that, the name Baryonyx means "heavy claw," so you would thing it would have this feature. Another inconsistency with spinosaur anatomy is the jaws on this Baryonyx: they're too broad, like a caiman; all spinosaurids had long narrow jaws with a hook at the end to aid in catching fish, Baryonyx was the first spinosaur discovered to have this feature. Third is it's missing the raised neural spines on the back that are also common to spinosaurs. Lastly, it did NOT have crocodile-like osteoderms running down the back.
Hours after the DPG has darted Owen and taken Blue and Zia, we see that Owen awakes from his unconsciousness, but is still mostly immobile. He is surprised by a Sinoceratops, which plays with him for a little while before running away. Lava crawls toward him and he escapes just before he is burnt. He sees Claire and Franklin and the three run away from the lava and falling debris, while being chased by stampeding dinosaurs. I was honestly surprised to see Sinoceratops in this film, as it is a relatively new genus, when most taxa in the Jurassic Park series were described before 1993 (Sino received its name in 2010). It's also a fairly decent depiction of the genus with only one problem: the holes in its frill. It's clearly a reference to Patchi in Walking With Dinosaurs 3D, a Pachyrhinosaurus who survived an attack by the as yet undescribed Alaskan troodontid as a baby, escaping with an hole in his frill. All centrosaurids have two openings in their frill that would most likely have been covered up by soft tissue, but Jurassic World's Sinoceratops took the injury to a greater extent by having the holes present over both openings. The scene when the Sinoceratops licks Owen is actually more accurate than you would think. A study examining the hyoid bones (which anchor the tongue to the mouth) of 330 fossil specimens of extinct taxa, as well as the hyoid muscles and bones of 15 modern animals related to dinosaurs, found that most of the dinosaurs had short and simple tongues similar to crocodilians. Birds, by contrast, have very diverse and complex tongues. The researchers found that bird-like dinosaurs and pterosaurs also had complicated tongue bones, which led them to posit that the evolution of diversity and mobility in tongues might be connected to flight. When ancient creatures’ hands evolved into wings, they needed mobile tongues so they could better manipulate food. flight may have also allowed dinosaurs to access different kinds of food, which required specialized tongues and mouths. Ornithischians like ceratopsians also had complex hyoids because they needed to chew their food more than large carnivores, who could easily tear off large chunks of food to swallow whole.
Having survived the Baryonyx encounter, causing the island’s dinosaurs to stampede to flee the pyroclastic flow. The biggest problem I have with this scene is that in an attempt to escape the flow, we see multi-ton dinosaurs like Apatosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Triceratops, and Stegosaurus galloping. Multi-ton dinosaurs GALLOPING! While we don’t have any living dinosaurs to use as a model to estimate speed, one way paleontologists estimate how fast dinosaurs could move is by using equations based on the distance between footfalls and the size of the feet as well as estimates based on the morphology of an animal. Using the trackway method, the fastest speed of a dinosaur is about 12 meters per second or 27 mph. Paleontologists make predictions about functional morphology from anatomical features such as muscle scars. There are at least two ways to estimate speed after looking at morphology: one is to simply compare dinosaurs with living animals whose motion we understand better, and make assumptions based on the similarities and differences between the two. This can be called the morphological paradigm. Many hadrosaurs and theropods had skeletal structure that was similar to that of some modern cursors (animals that are good runners, like horses and ostriches): long legs, digitigrade stance (walking on one's toes), etc. So we might think that some of those dinosaurs were “cursorial,” or specialized for locomotion, but because their locomotory features are not as specialized as those of many of the faster extant runners, we think that it is unlikely that any non-avian dinosaurs ran incredibly fast. Similarly, many sauropods, thyreophorans (armored dinosaurs), and ceratopsians were similar to modern graviportal (non-cursorial, heavily-built) animals like elephants, so paleontologists think that such large dinosaurs were less speedy. In general, big land animals use less strenous activities than their smaller relatives. Therefore, those galloping herbivores is unfortunately inaccurate. A pyroclastic flow (the cloud of gas and volcanic matter emitted from a volcano during an eruption), on the other hand, can reach speeds of 700 km/hr (430 mph) and temperatures of 1,000 C (1,830 F), so if this movie was to be accurate, it would’ve ended here because anything on the island would have been cooked alive with the possible exception of the Pteranodons that could fly away, and even they can't fly with the way their wing membranes are attached to their tail and pointed wings
Owen, Claire, and Franklin take shelter behind a broken gyrosphere (the orbs ridden in Jurassic World to get a better look at the dinosaurs) when they are approached by a Carnotaurus, an abelisaurid that many fans have wanted to see in the JP series (including myself). Surprisingly, the Carnotaurus actually looks fairly accurate for a change. Only one relatively complete specimen of Carnotaurus has been found, and from that specimen, we know this was a medium size theropod with two horns on the skull, long legs for sprinting, tiny backward-facing arms like all abelisaurs, and mostly scaly skin with osteoderms (one of the few dinosaurs we have extensive scale impressions from). Jurassic World’s Carnotaurus has all of these features, so it passes my accuracy test (although they could’ve given it less spikes). Another Sinoceratops (or possibly the same one from before) appears and challenges the Carnotaurus to a fight. The centrosaurine wins, causing to turn the attention of the Carnotaurus back to humans. Just as it is about to attack, Isla Nublar's Tyrannosaurus appears and chomps down on the smaller carnivore's neck, killing it.
Rexy's intrusion gives the DPG enough time to make their escape. Owen is slowed down a bit by the ash, but Claire and Franklin fall off the edge with several other dinosaurs. The magma bombs break the Gyrosphere, and Claire and Franklin almost drown, but are able to survive when Owen opens one of the doors
It was all a lie!"
Crawling up on the beach, they see how several of the dinosaurs, such as the Baryonyx and T. rex are all being captured. The ship begins caging all of the captured dinos, Owen, Claire, and Franklin use a truck to drive on the ship, which is leaving the island, they only barely make it, and watch the island burn up in the background. A trapped Brachiosaurus calls out to the departing ship before being engulfed by the ash and dying.
Back at Lockwood Estate, we learn that Eli and Gunnar Eversol plan to sell the dinosaurs for money. Eli takes Gunnar to a lab, where he reveals that they are creating a new dinosaur, called the Indoraptor. With the current one being a prototype, and their plan to use it for militaristic purposes. Lockwood's apparent granddaughter Maisie overhears their conversation and learns of their plan, who attempts to tell Benjamin, but he seemingly believes she misheard them and sends her to bed.
Zia believes they need Blue for something, so in order to save Blue’s life, Zia informs Claire and Owen that they need to give her a blood transfusion. The only problem is that Blue was the only member of Owen’s raptor pack to survive the battle with the Indominus rex, so Zia suggests they take blood from another tetanuran on board the ship, specifically the T. rex. They find the rex and successfully get her blood but are locked in by some of the guards as she wakes up. As the agitated animal begins to thrash violently, Claire escapes through the top and opens the main doors of the cage. Could you actually give a dromaeosaur blood from a tyrannosaur? Surprisingly, you can, but it can only be done once. Cross-species transfusions, or xenotransfusions, are possible, but they’re incredibly risky because the immune system of the animal your giving blood will recognize the blood for the transfusion as foreign and protect the body from invasion. According to Dr Katherine Queensbury, an exotic animal veterinarian who has performed about 50 xenotransfusions in birds, “Whenever you go across species, the red blood cells are destroyed, and it varies how long they last. It can be as short as half a day, or five to six days, but what that gives you is time to stabilize the animal and provide other life-supportive measures. Once the foreign matter is introduced into the body, it produces antibodies to reject that. When you use the same species, you might not get that reaction, but when you do dog to cat or pigeon to parrot, their bodies recognize those blood cells as foreign, and the next time you transfuse the animal will go into shock.” The second time you attempt a xenotransfusion, there is a 60% chance the patient will die because “you would expect more complications, like the red blood cells breaking apart or severe allergic reaction,” according to veterinarian Lauren Witter. Zia is correct by referring to T. rex and Velociraptor as tetanurans, but Blue and Rexy are much more closely related than that. Tetanurae is the clade that includes carnosaurs, tyrannosaurs, maniraptorans, and megalosauroids. A further division of Tetanurae is Avetheropoda, a branch that can be divided into carnosaurs (allosaurs, carcharodontosaurs, neovenatorids, and megaraptorans) and ceolorusaurians (tyrannosauroids, compsognathids, and maniraptoriforms). As I mentioned in my blog post on feathers, maniraptoriforms include ornithomimids, alvarezasaurs, therizinosaurs, oviraptorids, scansoriopterygids, dromaeosaurs, troodontids, and avialans. Claire and Owen could’ve taken blood from one of the Gallimimus Wheatley's team had captured or even better, from a bird if one happened to land on the ship to save Blue, but there would still be the same risk of an allergic reaction if the procedure was repeated.
Franklin is caught is forced to help transfer the dinosaurs to Lockwood Manor. Owen and Claire sneak into a truck, but are discovered by Wheatley and imprisoned in the basement of Lockwood Manor.
Maisie, having observed Mills entering the entrance code for the mansion's elevator the previous day, secretly enters the laboratory and watches several clips of Owen training the Velociraptors on Isla Nublar. This is where we see the famous scene from the first trailer of Owen and Blue bonding. Even as a baby, Blue has all the anatomical problems that are standard for Jurassic Park raptors such as pronated hands and the lack of feathers, but that's not my main problem with Blue: she has too many teeth in this scene! Her teeth extend all the way back to a bone in the skull called the lacrimal, which no dinosaur, or any vertebrate for that matter, has teeth on.
Another thing is all the babies have adult skull anatomy. Vertebrates do not start out life resembling the adult form in miniature, and dinosaurs are no exception. Theropods would've started out with gracile skulls with large craniums and gracile jaws that eventually strengthen to give the animal more strength. An interesting if drastic example of how an animal's ontogeny changes throughout its life stges is Tyrannosaurus, which started out with thin crocodile-like jaws and long legs for pursuing fast prey that eventually develops into thicker legs and bone-crushing jaws perfect for hunting large ornithischians. I will talk about another example of unique dinosaur ontogeny when I get to the auction
Maisie's exploration is interrupted by Mills and Dr. Henry Wu; the latter is extremely stressed about Blue's condition. Maisie, in an attempt to escape the two men, backs into a corridor and encounters the Indoraptor, who startles Maisie, alerting the attention of Mills, who angrily escorts her upstairs and locks her in her bedroom.
Lockwood confronts Mills about the latter's true intention of selling the dinosaurs in an auction, angered that Mills has crossed him and used his own mansion as the auction's venue. Ordered by Lockwood to call the police himself, Mills instead murders Lockwood by smothering him with a pillow. Bidders soon arrive for a dinosaur auction and place their bids on various species of dinosaurs captured by the team on the island, including an Ankylosaurus, a juvenile Allosaurus, a Baryonyx, and multiple others. The final dinosaur Eversol and Mills show the crowd the prototype Indoraptor, emphasizing that the animal is not for sale.
After being captured by Wheatley, Owen attracts the attention of a Stygimoloch, causing her to break through the wall and eventually break through the doors of Owen and Claire's cell allowing them to escape. While the Stygimoloch looks decent anatomy-wise, there is one big thing about this dinosaur I have to criticize Jurassic World on: it doesn’t exist. I’m not saying it was a fictional genus like Indominus or Indoraptor, it’s really a subadult Pachycephalosaurus. Jack Horner, the scientific advisor for the entire Jurassic Park franchise, determined in 2009 that both Dracorex and Stygimoloch were not mature adults by examining the internal bone structure of skulls of each pachycephalosaur; both exhibit bone texture and composition consistent with juvenile and subadult age, respectively. They further found that pachycephalosaurs "employed metasplasia to rapidly grow and change the size and shape of their horns, cranial ornaments and frontoparietal domes, resulting in extreme cranial alterations during late stages of growth." Other paleontologists found that other known "domeless" pachycephalosaurs are juvenile individuals which develop domes as they reach adulthood, and can likely be synonymized with previously named taxa. In 2016, Goodwin & Evans described remains of juvenile Pachycephalosaurus significantly smaller than "Dracorex", and also confirmed that the characteristic horns or studs at the rear of the skull were present even at a very young age. Goodwin & Evans also give us a term (originally coined by Dr. Denver Fowler and adopted by Horner and others) to describe the very distinct growth stages that many ornithischians and some theropods exhibit over their lifetimes: ontigimorphs. To add to this, Horner advised director J. A. Bayonna against putting Stygimoloch in Fallen Kingdom, but the latter unfortunately ignored Horner.
Owen and Claire encounter Maisie, who has escaped her room and discovered her dead grandfather, and the three enter the auction room as the Indoraptor is being displayed. Understanding that the Indoraptor is far too dangerous to be sold, Owen disrupts the auction's proceedings with the aid of the subadult Pachycephalosaurus and wreaks havoc among the spectators, causing Mills and Eversol to end the auction.
A creature of the future, made from pieces of the past! Ladies and gentlemen, please be warned! This is the perfect hybrid of the two most dangerous creatures that ever walked the Earth! We call it...the Indoraptor!"
I know what you're going to say when I reveal I'm going to try and break down the inaccuracies of the Indoraptor: "Josh, the Indoraptor is not a real genus, so it gets a pass for being inaccurate. Shut up." My response is that I will be examining it as if paleontologists have discovered the remains of a theropod and described the new genus as Indoraptor, similar to how I examined Mosasaurus, Giraffatitan, Baryonyx, Sinoceratops, Carnotaurus, and Pachycephalosaurus/Stygimoloch. In doing so, I will speculate other creatures that are included in the Indoraptor's genome. We already because since it is a modification of the Indominus rex that Indoraptor has the DNA of Tyrannosaurus, "Velociraptor," Giganotosaurus, Majungasaurus, Carnotaurus, Rugops, various anurans (frogs and toads), an unidentified pit viper, and cuttlefish, but anything else is open for wild speculation.
Overlapping scales on the back: I already stated when I talked about the Mosasaurus that archosaurs didn't have overlapping scales. This has to be a product of squamate DNA. These could also be enlarged osteoderms like those on the back of a notosuchian called Armadillosuchus, but any crocodilian could be used to explain the osteoderms.
Dentition: I'm guessing the tusklike teeth of Indoraptor are a holdover from Indominus rex, and since no dinosaur had teeth like that, I'm guessing it's an artistic liberty. An alternative explanation is it could have pliosaur DNA, but since that was not in the genome of Indominus, it's very unlikely and a fringe theory at best.
Quills: Since Bayonna and Trevorrow are pretty much anti-feather, I wouldn't be surprised if the feathers were just miniscule quills (the Mononykus diorama in Lockwood's personal museum also had a few quills on the tail) like the male raptors in Jurassic Park ///. This is not enough in my opinion, you either need give the dinosaur correct feathers (tail fan, wings, full coat of feathers stopping at the mouth and feet), or don't give it feathers at all. It could be the result of DNA from an ornithischian called Tianyulong, which I talked about in my feather post (read it, it's worth it)
Quadrupedal stance: Now this is my main problem with the Indoraptor: no theropod has any adaptations for walking on four legs. There is precedent for this however, as when Megalosaurus, the first dinosaur ever known to science, was first discovered, it was initially depicted as a gigantic lizard walking on four legs. Flash forward to late 2014, after most intellectual people have accepted that dinosaurs had feathers, a paper was released that proposed Spinosaurus had short legs adapted for a semiaquatic lifestyle. The researchers concluded that Spinosaurus would have to walk on its knuckles like a gorilla (insert fanboy backlash here). There was a problem with this reconstruction, as Spinosaurus, like other theropods, could not rotate their wrists like primates can, ruling it out as a source of DNA. The only other possible source of this DNA is from an ornithopod, which could walk on four legs and run on two when they need to, but I have an even crazier hypothesis that I'll reveal after I continue the plot summary.
Lastly, this thing is skinny as hell, I was wondering why nobody fed it before its debut at the auction.
Later in the evening, Wheatley enters the deserted auction room and notices the Indoraptor. Having never seen the creature before and wanting one of its teeth for his necklace, Wheatley shoots the Indoraptor with two tranquilizer darts and enters the cage after the Indoraptor appears to be sedated. In reality, the Indoraptor is unaffected by the tranquilizer darts; he smiles and distracts Wheatley by waving his tail in the air before severing Wheatley's arm and devouring him. Another nitpick is the shock and loss of blood from the Indoraptor ripping Wheatley's arm should have killed him immediately though. The Indoraptor then exits his cage and pursues Eversol and other executives taking refuge in an elevator. Eversol successfully closes the elevator before the Indoraptor reaches them; however, the hybrid uses its tail to cut off power supply to the auction room, which automatically reopens the elevator door. The Indoraptor then devours Eversol and the other executives. Owen reunites with Claire and Maisie and the three encounter Mills and two security guards in the mansion's basement. After unsuccessfully coaxing Maisie to come with him, Mills angrily reveals that Maisie is actually a clone of Lockwood's beloved daughter who had perished in a car accident many years prior. As Owen, Claire and Maisie process this revelation, the Indoraptor suddenly appears and kills the two security guards, prompting the others to flee. Owen, Claire and Maisie take refuge on the main floor of Lockwood's mansion, in the skeleton and replica display room. They notice a human corpse on the ground near a Triceratops skull; as they approach it, the Indoraptor reveals himself and pulls the corpse farther behind the skull. The three protagonists take refuge against one of the walls of the skull's casing, but the Indoraptor successfully locates their vantage point by tracking their scent and climbing on top of the Triceratops skull. The Indoraptor chases Owen, Claire and Maisie up a spiraling staircase before the three escape into a power supply room, where Owen turns off the entire mansion's power. Zia and Franklin discover a hydrogen cyanide leak near the laboratory, which will kill all of the dinosaurs if it spreads to the encaging area. Franklin resets the control system in order to restore power to the mansion. At this time, Owen, Claire and Maisie are hiding behind a diorama of a Velociraptor and Dilophosaurus engaged in battle near a glass wall. Maisie soon realizes that she is staring into the face of the Indoraptor through the glass wall and shrieks in terror; the Indoraptor breaks the wall and pursues the group once again, injuring Claire's leg with his toe claw in the process. The Indoraptor chases Maisie up another staircase and down a hallway until Maisie escapes up to her bedroom, where she takes refuge in her bed. Owen is urged to take care of Maisie by the injured Claire; the two share a passionate kiss before Owen leaves to search for Maisie. The Indoraptor, who by this point has ascended to the mansion's roof, lets out a demonic screech and descends the building until he reaches the windows leading to Maisie's room. Hanging upside down, the Indoraptor opens one of the windows and enters Maisie's room, slowly approaching her bed as she begins to shiver and cry (for those who saw the trailer that premiered during the Super Bowl this year, this is the scene where we only see the hand and mouth of the Indoraptor that I saw on YouTube the next day during the events of Chapter 5). Basically, a hand position like that is impossible for any theropod. All theropods have special bones in their wrists that keep the hands pointing inward like the dinosaur is clapping. In order for the Indoraptor to move its arm in this positon, it would either have to dislocate its shoulder or the arm would have to be in its mouth. Another possible, but crazy idea (hey, if we've got streaker dromaeosaurs, kaiju Mosasaurus, Harryhausen ripoffs, living dinosaur toys, escaping pyroclastic flows, and GMO monsters, I might as well go all out with crazy ideas) is that the Indoraptor has human DNA in its genome, which would also support its hyper intelligence.
The Indoraptor fends off Blue and traps Owen and Maisie on the glass roof of the display room. Just before the Indoraptor pounces, Claire appears and coaxes him into attacking Owen with the laser and acoustic signal on the same gun used in the auction demonstration. The Indoraptor charges towards Owen and falls through the glass roof; however, he manages to grab ahold of a rafter connecting the glass panes together and pulls himself back atop the roof. Blue suddenly appears and jumps onto the Indoraptor, causing both to fall down into the display room. The Indoraptor falls directly onto the Triceratops skull, which impales and kills him, while Blue lands on top of the hybrid's corpse and escapes. Franklin and Zia enter and reunite with Owen, Claire and Maisie, and the five protagonists escape the battleground.
However, a new issue looms; the dinosaurs are trapped in a room that is flooded by noxious hydrogen cyanide. Earlier, while Zia and Franklin were tending to Blue in Wu's laboratory. Zia revealed to Wu that she had given Blue a transfusion of T. rex blood, infuriating Wu, as it would now be impossible to create an Indoraptor with Blue's pure genome. As Zia and Franklin flee to safety, Blue kills the two gunmen and escapes the laboratory before a massive explosion occurs - the brief battle had caused damage to several tanks of hydrogen gas within the laboratory. Claire releases all of the dinosaurs’ cages one by one. Claire puts her hand on the red button that would release all of them from the entire building, but Owen discourages Claire to do so, thus making Claire resist because she does not want the dinosaurs to destroy the world. However, Maisie pushes the button anyway, allowing the dinosaurs to escape to the mainland. As Mills is about to put the Indominus rex fragment into the car, a stampede sound can be heard. As one of the men goes to investigate, a Pteranodon snatches and drops him onto Mills’ car, killing him. The now free dinosaurs begin to stampede out of the mansion, trampling another guard. Mills immediately takes refuge under the car, which is quickly destroyed in the stampede. As Mills gets up from his wrecked car and picks up the I. rex fragment, the T. rex approaches and bites him, brutally shredding him before splitting the meal with a Carnotaurus. The T. rex then knocks over the Carnotaurus with her head and the Carnotaurus gets up and runs off. The T. rex roars and walks away, crushing the I. rex fragment in the process and ensuring that no carnivorous hybrid can ever wreak havoc upon the world again. Owen, Claire, Franklin, Zia, and Maisie all exit through the entrance of the Lockwood Manor, where Blue reunites with Owen, and even touches Owen’s hand. Owen instructs for Blue to accompany him; however, Blue denies him, as she would rather run free on her own than be kept in a cage again. Ian sums up his speech, as a sequence of shots are displayed such as the Mosasaurus attacking surfers, the T. rex roaring at a lion in a zoo, Owen, Claire and Maisie are seen driving down the highway to an unknown destination, and Blue climbing onto top of a cliff with a suburban setting below and calling out into the sunset. While Malcom makes it seem like the humans are the ones in danger, more people think its actually the dinosaurs. Paleontologist Dr. Thomas Holtz thinks the animals that escaped are in for a bad time, claiming that humans are very dangerous when threatened on their own territory. I guess we'll have to wait for Jurassic World 3 to find out what will happen to the dinosaurs...
These creatures were here before us and, if we're not careful, they're gonna be here after. Life cannot be contained. Life breaks free. Life... finds a way. We've entered a new era. Welcome to Jurassic World."
As always with the Jurassic Park series, there are lots of sloppy mistakes with the animal designs such as that the Pteranodons should not be able to fly with the way their wing membrane is attached to the body or how one picks up Lockwood's business partner with its feet like a reptilian eagle (I will cover pterosaurs as a whole in my next paleontology post), all the theropods having wrists that are broken, T. rex roaring all the time when it probably would've sounded similar to modern ratites (I've heard captive rheas boom, that sound goes right through you), incredibly boring color schemes, the absence of a "boss" on Apatosaurus, and, of course, the blatant lack of feathers when many of the dinosaurs in the movie have relatives with direct evidence of feathers. So yeah, JW2 completely butchered paleontological knowledge as always. Anyway, I'm going to wrap it up here, because I don't want to anger too many fanboys. I really want to review The Big Year in this fashion, but I'm not sure what I'll do about movies after that, and will probably check the results of the survey I linked to in Chapter 14. I'm definitely going to talk about The Big Year, though, you can't change that.
This is where I will give my opinion of the movie without any of the scientific talk, then give my final verdict on the movie by adding up the number of gold stars and divide by the number of criteria
Plot consistency: ⭐⭐✰✰✰
Taxa represented: ⭐⭐⭐✰✰
Scientific accuracy: ✰✰✰✰✰
Computer graphics/practical effects: ⭐✰✰✰✰
Jeff Goldblum screen time*: ⭐⭐✰✰✰
Final score: ⭐✰✰✰✰. Low. VERY low.
*this criteria is exclusive to the Jurassic Park series. I may use a different category if I review other movies in this fashion.
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Like many birders, I am fascinated with the many advances made by the scientific community, and advances in bird taxonomy are no different. Since the American Ornithological Society released the 59th supplement to the AOS Check-list on Thursday, I might as well cover some of the most notable changes as they effect North and Middle America.
White-collared Seedeater (Sporophila torqueola, sensu lato) has been split into two species: Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater (Sporophila torqueola, sensu stricto) and Morelet’s Seedeater (Sporophila morelleti). The latter is now the only species of tanager which regularly breeds in the continental United States. It reaches the northern end of its range along the Rio Grande in southern Texas; from there, its range extends south along the Gulf and Caribbean coasts to the southern end of its range in western Panama. It is also found on the Pacific slope from there north to Oaxaca. The former is endemic to the Pacific slope and interior of Mexico, from Oaxaca north to southern Sonora and disjunctly in southern Baja California Sur. There is at least one unaccepted record of Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater from the ABA Area, in San Diego, California, on 30 August 2015. As a pretty bird which happily eats seeds and produces a beautiful song, it’s a “good” caged bird, so a conservative approach is probably warranted. I only have Morelet's Seedeater for both ABA and world, so not too exciting.
The English name of Perisoreus canadensis has changed from Gray Jay to Canada Jay. This reverses a committee action from 1957 and is also a nod toward the possible adoption of the species as the official bird of Canada. The committee went against precedent with this decision: its often-voiced opinion that, unless there’s a species-level change, it’s not wise to tinker with long-established English names, didn’t win out this time (a similar proposal was made last year to change the English name of Aythya collaris from Ring-necked Duck to Ring-billed, but that did not pass). While changing the name from Gray to Canada is appropriate to keep with the English names of other Perisoreus jays (Siberian for P. infaustus and Sichuan for P. internigrans) and I approve of it, this might take a while for me to get used to so don't send me bck to the car if I slip up and say "Gray" instead of "Canada," I'm still adjusting.
Ammodramus was split to form Centronyx and Ammospiza, leaving Grasshopper as the only North American member of this genus, with an additional two in South America
The woodpecker genus Picoides has been split. North American species are now in Picoides, Dryobates, and Dendrocopos. Black-backed and American Three-toed will stay in Picoides, Great Spotted will be moved to Dendrocopos, and the rest will be moved to Dryobates
The Old World chat genus Luscinia has been split. ABA Area species are now in Larvivora, Cyanecula, and Calliope. I currently have none of these for ABA and probably won't unless I go to western Alaska
Gray Nightjar has been split. The scientific name of the species which has been found in the ABA Area changes from Caprimulgus indicus to Caprimulgus jotaka.
Asian bush-warblers were transferred from Cettia to Horornis. In North America, the only member of this genus is the Japanese Bush-Warbler, an introduced species in Hawaii
Just a few weeks ago, the birding world was shocked again when less than 24 hours after birders at Tadoussac Bird Observtory in Quebec had a record-breaking high count of 700,000+ warblers, Brian Patterson and Kate Sutherland reported a Tahiti Petrel on a Seabirding trip out of North Carolina. This was not only a first record for the state, but also a first for the Continental ABA Area and the Atlantic Ocean as a whole.
This was a species that, while common in captivity, has had a few valid records in the ABA Area in the past few years, most notably one last year in New Hampshire. Interestingly, prior to this supplement, the closely related Ruddy Shelduck was on the AOS Check-list but not the ABA Checklist
Storm-petrels in Fregetta, Oceanites, and Pelagodroma were elevated to a new family: Oceanitidae. Since my only ABA Storm-Petrel at the time of this writing is Wilson's, I have no members of the original family on my ABA list. I have Wedge-rumped and possibly Band-rumped from the Galapagos in my pre-birding years, which I will have to review my records for when I get the chance.
The subspecies of Buff-throated Foliage Gleaner found on the Pacific slope of Costa Rica gained full species status: Autolomus exsertus
Tyrannoidea has been replaced with Tyranni, which includes Cotingidae, Tityridae, Pipridae, Oxyruncidae, and Tyrannidae. Sequences in Tyrannidae have also been changed as well.
Coopman's Elaenia has been split from Lesser Elaenia as well as Chivi from Red-eyed, Olive from Tufted, Black-backed Water-Tyrant from Pied, and Hermit Wood-Wren from Gray-breasted.
Passerini's and Cherrie's Tanagers were lumped to form Scarlet-rumped Tanager
This was not a species change, but rather a subspecies change: Chiriqui Yellowthroat was found to be closer related to Masked Yellowthroat than to Olive-crowned Yellowthroat
Unfortunately, a lot of exciting proposals from a North American perspective were rejected this year, including those to lump Taiga and Tundra Bean-Geese, split Mexican Duck, change of the English name of Rock Pigeon back to Rock Dove, separation of Fork-tailed Swift into four species, change of the English names of Common Gallinule and Common Moorhen, recognition of the genus Catharacta, split Scopoli's Shearwater from Cory’s, split Boyd's Shearwater from Audubon’s, split Barn Owl into three species, elevate Platyrinchinae and Rhynchocyclinae to family level, rearrange the linear sequence of tyrant flycatcchers, change of the treatment of Piprites by creating the new family Pipritidae, transfer of Lesser Whitethroat from Sylvia to Curruca, separation of Toxostoma arenicola from LeConte’s Thrasher, separation of Melozone occipitalis from White-eared Ground-Sparrow, and split Yellow Warbler into two species.
I don't usually like to bring my opinions into scientific discussions, but t
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